Fire investigations are a complex puzzle, and at the heart of this puzzle are fire patterns. These intricate patterns, etched into the fabric of the scene, hold the key to understanding how a fire developed, spread, and ultimately consumed its surroundings. In this blog, we’ll explore the world of fire patterns, including V-patterns, burn damage, and flashover indicators. Drawing on references from the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 921 and NFPA 1033, among other credible sources, we will unravel how investigators interpret these clues to reconstruct the fire’s timeline.

The Language of Fire Patterns

Fire patterns, also known as burn patterns, are the physical traces left by a fire’s movement and behavior. These patterns serve as a silent witness to the fire event, conveying essential information about the fire’s progression, its origin, and the underlying cause.

 V-Patterns: Tracing the Fire’s Path

V-patterns are among the most recognizable and informative of all fire patterns. These distinctive patterns typically form on vertical surfaces, such as walls and doors. According to NFPA 921 (2021), V-patterns provide critical insights into the direction of the fire’s travel. The origin of the fire is usually situated at the point where the arms of the V converge, signifying the area of greatest fire intensity (NFPA 921, 2021, p. 21-6).


Burn Damage: Scars of Intensity

Burn damage, a manifestation of fire’s heat and intensity, leaves a lasting mark on materials and structures. NFPA 1033 (2024) emphasizes the importance of understanding burn damage in fire investigation. For instance, partially or entirely consumed materials reveal the fire’s path and the direction from which the flames approached. Materials that have undergone total consumption are typically found nearest to the fire’s point of origin, providing critical clues about its location (NFPA 1033, 2024, p. 13).

 Flashover Indicators: Unveiling a Pivotal Event

Flashover is a significant event in the development of a fire. As outlined in NFPA 921 (2021), flashover occurs when the contents of a room reach a temperature at which everything inside ignites simultaneously. Recognizing flashover indicators is crucial for reconstructing the fire’s timeline. These indicators include charred doorways and windows, melted glass, and the presence of smoke and soot stains on ceilings and walls (NFPA 921, 2021, p. 21-7).

 Inter Fire Online: Examples of Fire Patterns: Annotated by Robert A. Corry Director, Fire Investigation Specialist American Re-Insurance

Steven W. Carman, Senior Special Agent, CFI U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives

Improving the Understanding of Post Flashover Fire Behavior


Interpreting Fire Patterns

Interpreting fire patterns is both science and art. Fire investigators leverage their expertise in fire behavior, materials science, and structural dynamics to decode these patterns. Here’s a step-by-step guide to how they do it:


  1. Identifying the Point of Origin: The initial and fundamental step in interpreting fire patterns is identifying the fire’s point of origin. Per NFPA 921 (2021), this area typically exhibits the most severe damage, marked by the convergence of V-patterns. It’s where the fire was most intense and destructive (NFPA 921, 2021, p. 21-8).


  1. Establishing the Fire’s Path: By analyzing the direction of V-patterns and burn damage, investigators can determine the fire’s path. They ascertain whether the fire spread from room to room, vertically, or horizontally. This understanding is crucial for reconstructing the sequence of events (NFPA 1033, 2024, p. 14).


  1. Recognizing Ignition Sources: Fire patterns created by different ignition sources, whether accelerants or electrical malfunctions, have distinctive characteristics. Identifying these patterns is essential in pinpointing the cause of the fire (NFPA 921, 2021, p. 21-9).


  1. Documenting the Fire’s Timeline: Investigators, drawing upon their analysis of fire patterns, establish a timeline of the fire’s progression. This timeline plays a pivotal role in reconstructing the sequence of events and understanding how the fire evolved over time (NFPA 1033, 2024, p. 15).


The Challenge of Alteration

Despite their informative nature, fire patterns are not static and can be altered by various factors. Ventilation, suppression efforts, and structural collapse can all transform these patterns. Understanding these alterations is crucial for a comprehensive investigation, as noted in NFPA 921 (2021, p. 21-10).



Fire patterns are the silent witnesses to a fire’s journey, revealing its path, origin, and cause. By unraveling the language of fire patterns and mastering the art of interpretation, investigators can unlock the narrative that fires inscribe on the scene. However, interpreting fire patterns is just the beginning of a comprehensive investigation. Investigators must integrate this analysis with other evidence, witness testimonies, and their deep knowledge of fire behavior to complete the narrative and unveil the full story. Fire investigations are a blend of science, art, and relentless dedication, and fire patterns are but one piece of this intricate puzzle.


 Gene Lutz